A systematic review and meta-analysis", "Special considerations for vitamin D in the south Asian population in the UK", "The uncertain significance of low vitamin D levels in African descent populations: a review of the bone and cardiometabolic literature", "Utility of sun-reactive skin typing and melanin index for discerning vitamin D deficiency", "Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline", "Vitamin D and calcium: a systematic review of health outcomes", "Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials", "Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States", "Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post-menopausal women and older men", "A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention", "Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force", "Association Between Calcium or Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Incidence in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health", "Anticancer vitamins du Jour--The ABCED's so far", "Prognostic role of vitamin d status and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in cancer patients: a systematic review", "Review: the impacts of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on cancer patient outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Vitamin D Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease Risks in More Than 83 000 Individuals in 21 Randomized Clinical Trials: A Meta-analysis", "Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Incorporating Individual Patient Data", "Vitamin D and immune regulation: antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory", "Vitamin D and HIV: letting the sun shine in", "Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis", "Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", "Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data", "Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age", "Vitamin D supplementation, moderate sun exposure, and control of immune diseases", "Association Between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "Clinical review: Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on improving glucose homeostasis and preventing diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Role of vitamin D in diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease", "Vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials", "Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies", "Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes", "Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: state of the evidence from a systematic review of randomised trials", "Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy", "Vitamin D and its role during pregnancy in attaining optimal health of mother and fetus", "Association Between Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy and Offspring Growth, Morbidity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "Vitamin D status and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled weight-loss trials", "Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin D and normal function of the immune system and inflammatory response (ID 154, 159), maintenance of normal muscle function (ID 155) and maintenance of normal cardiovascular function (ID 159) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", "Scientific opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and risk of falling pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", "Guidance for Industry: Food Labeling Guide", "Health Canada Scientific Summary on the U. S. Health Claim Regarding Calcium and Osteoporosis", "Regulatory Systems of Health Claims in Japan", "Vitamin D and Calcium: Updated Dietary Reference Intakes", "Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand", "Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of vitamin D", "Federal Register May 27, 2016 Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. [194] In 1929, a group at NIMR in Hampstead, London, were working on the structure of vitamin D, which was still unknown, as well as the structure of steroids. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones, because it helps the body use calcium from the diet. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. How to use I'd in a sentence. Looking for online definition of D or what D stands for? [162][163], Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia is caused by a mutation of the CYP24A1 gene, leading to a reduction in the degradation of vitamin D. Infants suffering from such a mutation have an increased sensitivity to vitamin D and in case of additional intake a risk of hypercalcaemia. [24] A diet with insufficient vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes vitamin D deficiency. The activity of CYP27B1 is increased by parathyroid hormone, and also by low calcium or phosphate. Reviews have described the evidence as being "inconsistent, inconclusive as to causality, and insufficient to inform nutritional requirements"[62] and "not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions". Kurs e-Rate digunakan untuk transaksi melalui e-Channel. [33], Maternal vitamin D deficiency may cause overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth. "D/D/D" stands for Different Dimension Daemon. [183][137], Vitamin D is carried in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted into the prohormone calcifediol. [1], Some preliminary studies link low vitamin D levels with disease later in life. Health Canada published recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin D in 2012[120] based on the Institute of Medicine report. These three chords form the basis of a huge number of popular songs. Using $300 of his own money, Steenbock patented his invention. In D major, that means D, G and A. For vitamin D deficiency: 50,000 IU per week for 6-12 weeks has been used. D. G. A. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. These are known collectively as calciferol. ", "Global Consensus Recommendations on Prevention and Management of Nutritional Rickets", "Abundant sunshine and vitamin D deficiency", "Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents", "Pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets--a report from the Indian subcontinent", "Adaptation of calcium absorption during treatment of nutritional rickets in Nigerian children", "Nutritional rickets without vitamin D deficiency in Bangladesh", "An epidemiological model of privational rickets and osteomalacia", "The role of cereals in the aetiology of nutritional rickets: the lesson of the Irish National Nutrition Survey 1943-8", "Nutritional rickets: deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or both? [10][11][201], There is conflicting evidence about the benefits of interventions with vitamin D,[202] one view purporting an intake of 4,000–12,000 IU/day from sun exposure with concomitant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 40 to 80 ng/mL,[203] while another view is that serum concentrations above 50 ng/mL are not plausible. Later, in 1949, the People's Republic of China adopted 公元 ( gōngyuán ; 'Common Era') for all … [69] A study found that supplementation with 800 UI or more daily, in those older than 65 years was "somewhat favorable in the prevention of hip fracture and non-vertebral fracture". In some countries, staple foods are artificially fortified with vitamin D.[133]. [14], Another 2014 review concluded that vitamin D3 may decrease the risk of death from cancer (one fewer death in 150 people treated over 5 years), but concerns with the quality of the data were noted. Stimulus Covid-19 (Token Gratis/Diskon) © 2020 PT PLN (Persero). This dose should be increased to 100 Âµg (4,000 IU) in some patients with very low vitamin D status or in case of co-morbid conditions. [139][140], In 2016 in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended food additive regulations for milk fortification,[141] stating that vitamin D3 levels not exceed 42 IU vitamin D per 100 g (400 IU per US quart) of dairy milk, 84 IU of vitamin D2 per 100 g (800 IU per quart) of plant milks, and 89 IU per 100 g (800 IU per quart) in plant-based yogurts or in soy beverage products. [23], An estimated one billion people worldwide are either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Tune in for a holly jolly series of D&D games featuring a delightful cast of characters and notable Dungeon Masters. The two major forms are vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, and vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol; vitamin D without a subscript refers to either D2 or D3 or both. [181] Dogs and cats are practically incapable of vitamin D synthesis due to high activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, but they do get them from prey animals. Vitamin D dikenal juga dengan nama kalsiferol. Serum 25(OH)D levels above 50 ng/mL (125 nmol/L) may be cause for concern. [19] Also, in the United States and Canada, vitamin D-fortified milk, infant vitamin supplements, and vitamin supplements have helped to eradicate the majority of cases of rickets for children with fat malabsorption conditions. [96] One review found that vitamin D supplementation could reduce the need for steroids used to inhibit episode frequency in people with mild to moderate asthma, and that supplementation had no effect on day-to-day asthma symptoms. The vitamin D metabolites, calcifediol and calcitriol, were identified by competing teams led by Michael F. Holick in the laboratory of Hector DeLuca and by Tony Norman and colleagues. [19], Rickets, a childhood disease, is characterized by impeded growth and soft, weak, deformed long bones that bend and bow under their weight as children start to walk. [60] Vitamin D supplements do not alter the outcomes for myocardial infarction, stroke or cerebrovascular disease, cancer, bone fractures or knee osteoarthritis. -d 1. [80] A 2020 systematic review and meta-analysis in people with colorectal cancer found evidence of a clinically meaningful benefit from vitamin D supplementation on outcomes, including survival, although the analysis had limitations. [75], Because it found mounting evidence for a benefit to bone health, though it had not found good evidence of other benefits, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required manufacturers to declare the amount of vitamin D on nutrition facts labels, as "nutrients of public health significance", since May 2016. [74], Athletes who are vitamin D deficient are at an increased risk of stress fractures and/or major breaks, particularly those engaging in contact sports. In 1922, Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed. [160], Calcitriol itself is auto-regulated in a negative feedback cycle, and is also affected by parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium, and phosphate. Both organizations noted that more people may require supplementation due to lower amounts of sun exposure during the pandemic,[209][210] and the NHS has provided free daily vitamin D supplements for people at high risk from COVID-19. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D 3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D 2 (ergocalciferol).. [161] Other symptoms of vitamin D toxicity include mental retardation in young children, abnormal bone growth and formation, diarrhea, irritability, weight loss, and severe depression. 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