But for those women who are married, God assigns a special responsibility to care for the home.  Martin Dibelius and Hans Conzelmann write, “The position which Thecla assumes in the Acts of Paul as teacher and preacher is very relevant” to the context of 1 Timothy. In the days before relatively safe and widely available contraceptives, having children was not an unexpected result of the sexual union of husband and wife.  It was well known in the early church, and several prominent early church fathers refer to it (Tertullian, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Methodius, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, and others) which indicates its widespread influence.. Since the peak of fertility in a 28 day cycle would be about days 12-16, if sex was only to be for procreation, it would have made more sense to have her be unclean until closer to that time, during which desire would build until a pregnancy would be pretty much guaranteed. Did this mythology influence the heresy in the Ephesian church? 7:4 here.). From first...deep a reverence he … 1 Timothy 2:12-15 (ESV) I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet. If this is the case, is Paul suggesting that women are saved by means of bearing children? (Here is another online source of book 3. Paul’s teaching about marriage and having children in 1 Timothy 2:15, 4:3-4 and 5:11-15 (cf. Virginity was exalted above all other human conditions. 1 Timothy 2:15 in all English translations. Retail: $39.99. And verse 15 is one of the trickiest passages in the Bible to interpret. In Ignatius’ letters (circa 115) we see that the church in Smyrna already had a recognised group of celibate women (IgnSm 13:1 cf. 1:15; 2:4; 2 Tim. 1. I suspect “Gnostic, or semi-Gnostic, ideas” are the impetus for Paul’s teaching in 1 Timothy 2:15. The man of lawlessness seeks to make himself the central person of worship, beyond any other religious objects or personages in his day. Those who propose “the childbirth” interpretation highlight the connection between the birth of Jesus Christ and the seed of the woman promised in Genesis 3:15. but she shall be saved through her child-bearing, if they continue in faith and love and sanctification with sobriety. Bible > Interlinear > 1 Timothy 2:15 1 Timothy 2:15 1 Timothy 2 - Click for Chapter. Many of them would have thought that abstinence would prevent more evil little bodies from coming into the world, and would have preferred that. This “word of God” is mostly about chastity and sexual self-restraint (egkrateia) which is associated with resurrection. Barrett, The Pastoral Epistles (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), 15.  I suspect that 1 Timothy 2:12-15 was aimed at a particular married couple in the church at Ephesus. They deny, too, the salvation of him who was first created. that if it wasn’t for procreation it was for lust. A wife’s fulfillment of this role will be one of the evidences of perseverance in the faith. Blessed are those with self-control (egkrateia), because God will speak to them. Accordingly, here is my expanded paraphrase of 1 Timothy 2:15: But she [the woman in 1 Tim. He argues that this was a major contributor to church growth—biological growth.  Tertullian, “Early Latin Theology”, S.L. (The ISV, and footnotes in NEB and NLT, convey this idea.) (1 Timothy 2). 2:11-12] will not lose her salvation if she has children, provided they [the man and the woman of 1 Tim. 1 Timothy 2:15 is an enigmatic verse and several interpretations have been put forward to explain its meaning. While it seems we are a bit far afield of Genesis’ command to be fruitful and multiply, in times of persecution or distress, these attitudes on virginity and/or celibacy are understandable. The confusion in sexuality and child birth is a classic heresy. (1 Timothy 2:15), Adam and Eve in Ancient Gnostic Literature, A wife has no authority of her own body?  The verb sōthēsetai (“s/he will be saved”) is usually, but not always, used in the New Testament with the meaning of eschatological salvation. The confusion over the meaning of this verse is reflected in different English translations. Paul was battling Gnosticism, and this speaking in favor of mutually fulfilling sex between a married couple. Yes I read it quite a while ago, not cover to cover though. But if they are not practicing self-control, they should marry; for it is better to marry than to burn with sexual passion.” – 1 Corinthians 7:1-9 http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1Corinthians7:1-9&version=MOUNCE. This background may also lay behind the statements in 1 Corinthians 7, which affirm sexual congress as a matter of mutual interest (even obligation) which should not be deprived by either husband nor wife from the other. Sometimes it is difficult to determine whether the standard phrase ‘faithful is the saying’ refers to what has gone immediately before or what follows immediately after, but what is evident, I submit, is that the formula is invariably attached to a statement about salvation. like Marcion and Saturninus, he declared that marriage was nothing else than corruption and fornication.” (Against Heresies 1.28.1) [I provide Irenaeus’s paragraph about Tatian in a postscript below.].  Yet, the cognate infinitive teknogonein appears a few chapters later in 1 Timothy where it is typically translated as “to have children” or “to bear children” (1 Tim. Are early Christian ideas about celibacy behind Paul’s statement in 1 Timothy 2:15? This is good, and pleases God our Savior, who wants all people to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. She is no mentioned or clearly alluded to in 1 Timothy.  See Léonie Hayne, “Thecla and the Church Fathers,” Vigiliae Christianae 48.3 (September 1994): 209-218. This is one area where I heartily disagree with the Catholic church, and one of the many reasons I am not a Catholic. Devotions related to 1 Timothy.  It is plausible that in this verse Paul was assuring a married woman (or women) in the Ephesian church that if she renounced celibacy, had sex with her husband, and became pregnant, she would not jeopardise or lose her salvation. ASV. Yet she will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control. Diog. The woman talked about in 1 Timothy 2:15 appears to be Eve from verses 13 and 14. (Revelation 13). Some also make the argument that we can’t be sure of the precise meaning of teknogonia. Furthermore, Gnostic-like beliefs, especially sexual renunciation, may be squarely behind Paul’s corrective teaching on salvation in 1 Timothy 2:15. Is Motherhood the highest calling for women? This is not claiming that a woman must have children in order to be saved. Tertullian writes, “Instructing Timothy, [Paul] attacks those who forbid marriage. For example, the NASB says that “women will be preserved,” whereas the ESV says that “she will be saved.”. —1 Timothy 2:15, The interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:15 has been an item of great debate among commentators. Instone-Brewer, Moral Questions of the Bible: Timeless Truth in a Changing World (Scripture in Hi Guy, I’m amazed that celibacy and asceticism is already seen is such an early document as 1 Corinthians. This shows that God is in the business of saving us; he isn’t on the lookout for a reason to kill us. 1 Timothy 6:10-11 For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. For the wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does.  Hans Jonas, The Gnostic Religion (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1963), 32. On the other hand, the goddess was also regarded as a midwife, and women in childbirth would call on the Ephesian Artemis/Diana for help (e.g., Acts of Andrew 25). . 7:4) Paul’s supposed message is that the life of a good Christian is a life of celibacy and that chaste living has a bearing on our salvation and on our resurrection. The ESV is nearer the mark. But that interpretation makes little sense in context. It can result in abuse and rape. Some scholars suggest that this verse is about physical safety during the childbirth process. God promises that through childbirth Eve can be saved, if they (her children) continue in faith and love and holiness with self-control. Blessed are those having wives as though not having them (i.e. He keeps a popular blog at DennyBurk.com. Do not deprive one another, except perhaps by agreement for a set time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer; then come together again, so that Satan may not tempt you because of your lack of self-control. However, while two verbs in 1 Timothy 2:13-14 are borrowed directly from the Septuagint’s version of Genesis 2:7-8, 15 and 3:13 (plassō: form/mould and apatatō: deceive), 1 Timothy 2:15 has no clear linguistic connection with Genesis 3:15. 1 Timothy 2:1-15 NIV. Hace you read Rodney Stark’s Rise of Christianity? (See footnote 22.). Why Did God Command Hosea to Marry a Prostitute? (1 Tim 2:11-15 NRSV) 1 Timothy is a personal letter written by Paul to his coworker Timothy in Ephesus. Adam and Eve in Ancient Gnostic Literature Tertullian, in his work against Gnostics (written sometime around 200), mentions 1 Timothy in the context of the teaching of the Gnostic teachers Marcion (c. 85-160) and Apelles. KJ21. and teach that we ought not to accept marriage and childbearing or introduce yet more wretches in their turn into the world to provide fodder for death?” (Stromata 3.6.45) Clement notes that the people who advocate for abstinence believe the resurrection has already happened. The Shakers didn’t think that marriage was necessary after their concept of the return of Christ. For there will be days when you will say, ‘Blessed is the womb which has not conceived and the breasts which have not given milk. A wife has no authority of her own body? With contributions from a team of pastors and scholars, this commentary through 9 of Paul’s letters helps students of the Bible to understand how each epistle fits in with the storyline of Scripture and applies today. Whereas desire is more about the idea of doing something special as a couple where both persons’ needs are considered. In 1 Timothy 2:15 Paul makes a very perplexing statement to the effect that Eve will be saved through “the childbearing” if they exercise good judgment and remain in the Christian way. 1 Tim. NIV Life Connect Study Bible, hardcover. 1 Timothy 2:15, KJV: "Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety." The early church fathers (many of whom were educated in Stoic philosophy) didn’t read the Bible carefully enough and promoted the idea that sex, especially enjoyable sex, was incompatible with holiness and piety. I have heard several well-known ministers teach this faulty interpretation. This is the teaching taught by Marcion and his follower Apelles.” (Prescription Against Heretics 33) Apparently, Marcion did not allow married converts to be baptised. Posted by Mary Kassian. So the way I see it, sex for lust is not good. This salvation is always appropriated by faith. (NIV) Outline of the Book of 1 Timothy . Is Adam solely responsible for the first sin? Marg Mowczko lives north of Sydney, Australia, in a house filled with three generations of family. There is already some evidence of these attitudes in first and second-century Christian thought. She strongly believes that if we are in Christ we are part of the New Creation and part of a community where old social paradigms of hierarchies and caste or class systems have no place (2 Cor. One of the more disturbing interpretations of this verse is that women cannot be saved unless they have children. He also serves as associate pastor at Kenwood Baptist Church in Louisville, Kentucky. This article is part of the Tough Passages series. [Jesus] said to her, “Blessed are those who have heard the word of the Father and have truly kept it. gospel-centered, Bible-centered content. Would you like to support my ministry of encouraging mutuality and equality between men and women in the church and in marriage?  Two ancient works are called by the name The Gospel of the Egyptians. One of these documents is the Gospel of the Egyptians, dated to between 80-150.. (Google Books),  Clement of Alexandria poses the rhetorical question, “What about those who use religious language for irreligious practices involving abstinence .  Lynn H. Cohick writes that teknogonia “is rather elastic and can indicate pregnancy, delivery or raising the child.” Cohick, Women in the World of the Earliest Christians (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2009), 138. 7 g For this I was appointed a preacher and an apostle (h I am telling the truth, I am not lying), i a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth. virgins, because of their perfect integrity and inviolate purity, will look upon the face of God most closely . One always wonders what piece of the context puzzle is missing in our mis-interpretations of so much scripture….  Benjamin Fiore brings up the Acts of Paul and Thecla in his commentary on the Pastoral Epistles, and writes, “The Acts of Paul and Thecla extols the extreme against which the Pastoral Epistles are reacting: chastity, emancipation from a wife’s role, ascetical abstinence, realized resurrection.” Fiore, The Pastoral Epistles (Sacra Pagina Series; Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2007), 67. This heretical teaching is behind Paul’s advice that idle younger widows remarry (1 Tim. , Other early Christian writings also extol the virtue of celibacy, and they explicitly connect it with not having children. 13 (New York: Paulist Press, 1951), 19, 21. It is not even teaching that a woman must be married to be saved. An English translation of the Acts of Paul and Thecla is here. (Google Books). “Now concerning the matters you wrote about. . You can depend on this. Throughout chapter 5 he explains that the lifestyle of Christians is similar (and therefore non-offensive and non-threatening) to their non-Christian neighbours.  This is suggested by Dibelius and Conzelmann who also provide some of the references to ancient sources that I quote in this article. I agree with Margaret Davies when she says, “Had Christ’s birth been the subject, the name Christ Jesus would have been highlighted, as in 1:15 and 2:5.” Nevertheless, I believe that salvation, rather than safety, is the meaning in 2:15. The confusion over the meaning of this verse is reflected in different English translations. Abstract nouns, however, are commonly used with a definite article in Greek and these articles are usually left untranslated in English translations.  Tertullian (who was born around the time the Acts of Paul and Thecla was written) also connects chastity (or continence) with salvation. Dibelius and Conzelmann, The Pastoral Epistles (Hermeneia; Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1972), 48. 1:9). One of these indicators is 1 Timothy 4:3 where Paul states that some in the church at Ephesus were forbidding marriage. There is spiritual safety for women if they submit to God’s order and role of the sexes. Barrett, writing about the Pastoral Letters of the New Testament (which includes First Timothy), notes an implied attack on Paul and his teaching “by those Jewish Gnostic Christians whose heretical kind of Christianity lurks in the background of the Pastorals.” Gnosticism was a “dualistic transcendent religion of salvation” that swept across the Roman Empire and was a real threat to apostolic Christianity. 5:11-15). Thus, women are saved through the childbirth of Christ. IgnPol 4:1). The interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:15 has been an item of great debate among commentators. Several Christian documents that promoted virginity and celibacy, by extension, also promoted not having children. 2:12] continue in faith, love, holiness and modesty (or, self-control). In the OT, the woman was considered unclean for the first 7 days of her cycle, then she was sent home with expectations of having relations with her husband. Some of those reckoned among them have also introduced abstinence from animal food, thus proving themselves ungrateful to God, who formed all things. 1 Timothy 2:15 . Our Price: $12.99 Save: $27.00 (68%) Buy Now. Posted by Marg | Jan 27, 2016 | 1 Timothy 2:12, All Posts on Equality, Paul and Women, The "Difficult" Passages, Uncategorized | 14, A couple of weeks ago I read the Acts of Paul and Thecla.  For example, the apocryphal Acts of John, written in the second century, tells of a respected Christian woman in Ephesus, who, “for the sake of godliness”, refused to have sex with her husband. Is her role as midwife relevant in understanding 1 Timothy 2:15? Salvation is future in this verse: “She will be saved.” Thus it is not entry into salvation that is in view but the future consummation of salvation. Galatians 3:28: Our Identity in Christ & in the Church, http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1Corinthians7:1-9&version=MOUNCE, Don Carson and Tim Keller on “I Do Not Permit a Woman to Teach”, In the Image of God (Gen 1:26-28) in a Nutshell. The Ephesian Heresy Pastoral Epistles, 48-49. 1 Timothy 2:15 is a difficult verse to understand. Rather, “she will be saved.”, I suspect Paul’s message in 1 Timothy 2:15 is that salvation is not dependent on celibacy and remaining childless, but is dependent on continuing in faith, love, holiness (hagiasmos) and modesty, or self-control (sōphrosunē), which are “expressions of a saved life.” Holiness and self-control are also ascetic ideals. (1 Cor. Greenslade (transl. To me, lust is a negative thing, based on selfishness where sex is all about me and my drives. He merely states that being single frees a person to serve God more. 3:28).  In Stromata 3.9.66 (written around 200) he provides this quotation: “Salome said, ‘How much longer will people (anthrōpoi) continue to die?’ . (This theme is a feature in all the Apocryphal Acts.) Jesus’ supposed statement in saying 79 in the Gospel of Thomas highlights the perceived ideal of celibacy and not having children: “A woman from the crowd said to him, “Blessed is the womb which bore you and the breasts which nourished you.” & ed.) Some scholars suggest that this verse is about physical safety during the childbirth process. A certain man named Tatian first introduced the blasphemy. Comments on Terminology: Notice these three terms. (1 Cor. In Ad Uxorem 1.7 he wrote, “We have been taught by the Lord and God of salvation that continence is a means of attaining eternal life. So, in both 1 Timothy 2 and Titus 2, Paul declares that wives have a God-ordained role to play in caring for children and the home. Designed by Brugel Creative | © Margaret Mowczko, Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), The Countess of Huntingdon and Gospel Ministry, Qualified for every good work (2 Timothy 2:2; 3:16-17). (2 Thessalonians 2). Tit.  Frances Young, and others, connect pistos ho logos, which can be translated as “this is a faithful saying”, with salvation. “Quietly” does not mean that women are never to utter a word when the church gathers for worship. Yet it is part of Complementarianism to assume that women are lesser in some way or another. . He was a hearer of Justin’s [Justin Martyr], and as long as he continued with him he expressed no such views; but after his martyrdom he separated from the Church, and, excited and puffed up by the thought of being a teacher, as if he were superior to others, he composed his own peculiar type of doctrine. . “The confusion in sexuality and child birth is a classic heresy.”, Nicely put. C.K. (Acts of John 63) This story is most likely fictitious, but it reveals attitudes and behaviours of some second-century Christians regarding celibacy and abstinence as acts of piety. . Christians overturned this saying by reversing it: “Women will be saved through childbearing – if they continue in faith, love and holiness” (1 Tim. (More about Artemis here.). The way I construe the logic of 1 Timothy 2:12–15 is as follows.  And it is the antithesis of the teaching found in many Christian documents that circulated widely in the second century, documents that strongly promoted virginity and chastity as saving virtues. Since other characters in the story, such as Paul and Queen Tryphaena, were real people, some have thought that Thecla was also a real person even though her surviving story has been obscured by exaggerated and fabricated embellishments. Denny Burk (PhD, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary) is professor of biblical studies at Boyce College, the undergraduate arm of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. My Catholic relative was truly taught by her church that she should never have sex WITH HER HUSBAND for the sake of lust, but only to procreate children…I can only pity him after they stopped having children a long time ago. Robust epidemiologic, clinical … There certainly seems to be a diversity of thought and practice in the early church. Women who embrace their God-ordained role while continuing in the Christian virtues of “faith and love and holiness, with self-control” will find themselves saved on the last day. I urge, then, first of all, that petitions, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for all people— for kings and all those in authority, that we may live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness. There are several indications in First Timothy that the heresy being addressed in the letter was an early or incipient form of Gnosticism that promoted chastity. This particular Greek word always refers to spiritual salvation elsewhere in the Pastoral Epistles, and we have no reason to think the verb is being used differently here. But this salvation only comes to those who continue in faith, love, and holiness, gathering it all into maturity. . But his denial of Adam’s salvation was an opinion due entirely to himself. The pastoral epistles (1 Tim 1:15; 3:1 (referring back to 2:15); 4:9; 2 Tim. This is contrasted with Eve, who transgressed those boundaries and fell into temptation (v. 14). . This seems to be the theology held by some in the Corinthian church. The husband should fulfill his marital responsibility to his wife, and likewise the wife to her husband. Obesity is a growing epidemic and a common problem among reproductive-age men that can both cause and exacerbate male-factor infertility by means of endocrine abnormalities, associated comorbidities, and direct effects on the fidelity and throughput of spermatogenesis. Now to the unmarried and to the widows I say that it is good for them if they remain single, as I am. NIV God's Justice: The Holy Bible, hardcover. Read verse in New King James Version You can support my work for as little as $3 a month. 5:1). Tertullian did not forbid marriage, especially first marriages, but he and his wife lived in continence; they did not have sex. 1 Timothy 2 New American Standard Bible (NASB) A Call to Prayer. The definite article is also highlighted in “the childbirth” interpretation. . David Instone-Brewer also suggests that safety is the meaning, but he believes Paul’s statement may have been designed to contradict an idea among some Jews, an idea later expressed in the Mishnah. Asceticism in Christianity seems to be tied to a theology of an already realised resurrection. What is God teaching us about his faithfulness in the story of Hosea and Gomer? Recorded at Calvary Chapel of Los Alamitos on Aug 12, 2020 on Wednesday evening Sermon. On the other hand, many churches may well have promoted a “normal” family life. very interesting take on these verses! It is but lately, however, that this opinion has been invented among them. The difficulty of “the childbirth” interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:15 is that elsewhere in 1 Timothy, Jesus and salvation are mentioned together plainly, but Jesus is not mentioned in 2:15. With Spirit-filled men leading local assemblies and marriages, Satan has a harder time deceiving the women like he did Eve. 1 Timothy 2:15 Nevertheless she will be saved in childbearing if they continue in faith, love, and holiness, with self-control. Original sin was thought to be transmitted by human procreation.” Dunn, The Theology of Paul the Apostle (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998), 73. He writes, To make sure wives remembered these duties, they literally instilled the fear of God into them, by teaching them an ancient and chilling saying: “Women die in childbirth for three reasons – because they are not meticulous in the laws of menstrual separation, of dough offering, and of kindling the Sabbath lamp” (Mishnah Shabbat 2.6). The one referred to in this article is the Egyptian gospel originally written in Greek, not the later Coptic Gospel of the Egyptians. A Great Debate. Thirteen beatitudes constitute Paul’s message; the following four are specifically about chastity: Blessed are those keeping their flesh chaste, because they will be a temple of God. The Gnostics were very confused in their teachings on sex, especially about procreation. Many of those, too, who belong to his school, abstain from animal food, and draw away multitudes by a feigned temperance of this kind.” (Against Heresies 1.24.2 cf. Talking about that pedestal…how often men say women seem to be determined to be taken down off ‘that pedestal’ while, in the same breath, they insist on our submission to them! But I wonder if the idea may have been circulating earlier and if it has anything to do with Paul’s correction in 1 Timothy 2:14, “And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner.”, Springing from Saturninus and Marcion, those who are called Encratites (self-controlled) preached against marriage, thus setting aside the original creation of God, and indirectly blaming Him who made the male and female for the propagation of the human race. Study This × Bible Gateway Plus. 1 Timothy 2:15 NRSV. (Online at JSTOR). Dibelius and Conzelmann saw the author of First Timothy as someone “who had to withstand the mighty assault of syncretistic and ascetic tendencies and movements” of the second generation of Jesus’ followers. The Gospel of the Egyptians does not survive as a whole but several early Christian authors quote from it, giving us glimpses of its content and ethos.  Craig Keener writes, “It may thus be that Paul’s promise that the women will be brought safely through childbirth is seen as a relief from part of the curse, from which believers will not be completely free until they share fully in the resurrection.” Craig S. Keener, Paul, Women, & Wives: Marriage and Women’s Ministry in the Letters of Paul (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013), 119. In Ad Uxorem 1.8, he adds, “ . Watch our overview video on 1 Timothy, which breaks down the literary design of the book and its flow of thought. 2:11; Titus 3:8) are “punctuated by ‘faithful sayings’. This idea is alive and well in Papal teaching. Commentary on 1 Timothy 2:8-15 (Read 1 Timothy 2:8-15) Under the gospel, prayer is not to be confined to any one particular house of prayer, but men must pray every where. There’s been more ink spilled over the doctrinal interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:11-15 than any other passage. It’s a controversial passage that evokes very strong emotional responses and reactions — particularly in this day and age. 1 Timothy 2 King James Version (KJV). ),  James Dunn notes that the “Hellenization of Christian thought”, especially in relation to sexuality, resulted in “the denigration of sexual relations” which “became a feature of Christian spirituality in late antiquity [third–eighth centuries]. Marg has a BTh from the Australian College of Ministries and an MA with a specialisation in early Christian and Jewish studies from Macquarie University. Library of Christian Classics V (1956), 54, footnote 71. The repeated theme of virginity and chastity (not having sex) is striking in the Acts of Paul and Thecla.  A few English translations of 1 Timothy 2:15 convey this idea (e.g., NASB; Darby Translation, Moffat Translation, Weymouth New Testament). In the same way, the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. I would agree with the ‘not for the sake for lust’ part – for the sake of love is Biblical. This interpretation harks back to Genesis 3:15, which says that the seed of the woman will crush the head of the Serpent, a prophecy fulfilled ultimately in the birth of Christ, who destroys the works of the Devil.
2020 1 timothy 2:15 and infertility