Paris/Bangkok: UNESCO. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9: 43-61. I work in academia Shifting away from the term ‘mother tongue-based’ may represent a loss from the perspective of minority language advocates. The way that MTB-MLE has been described, offered, and observed may contribute to low parent demand in some settings. The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the huge inequalities already faced by children with disabilities in terms of access to quality education. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. (2007). Language accumulated knowledge skills and myths are transmitted through mother tongue from one generation to another. Ultimately, mother tongue education is about creating a level playing field, about creating equal opportunities for all, regardless of economic status, ethnic background or geographic location. Education. I work for a civil society organization Enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in the early years. Optimizing learning education and publishing in Africa: The language factor. 19-35). The task force set up under the chairmanship of Secretary, Higher Education will … Most states that allow use of the mother tongue in early education use a bridging model, in which children are taught in the mother tongue for a few weeks or months, then in both the mother tongue and the dominant language for the first two or three years, and then transition to learning in the dominant language in the middle of primary school. Department of Education (DepEd) has implemented the use of mother tongue as a channel of instruction (DepEd order No. This often exceeds local human, financial, and technical resources. The best approach here is not to ignore all languages and opt for one language only, as is frequently the case. Based on international and … ”Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education”. Mother tongue education (MTE) has been a subject of rigorous debate for more than half a century, in both industrialised and developing societies. Rutu Foundation, Children learn better and faster in a language they can understand (preventing delays in learning), They enjoy school more, they feel more at home, Pupils tend to show increased self-esteem, Parents participation is increased. Mother Tongue refers to “first-language-first” education that is, schooling which begins in the mother tongue and transitions to additional languages particularly Filipino and English. Paris: UNESCO. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Erling, E. J., Adinolfi, l., Hultgren, A.K., Buckler, A., & Mukorera, M. (2016). What about multilingual classrooms? While the early exit approach does ease students’ entry into classroom instruction, it does not build upon research about the necessary conditions for cross-linguistic transfer of literacy skills, calling into question whether MTB-MLE is an apt term. Hamburg: UNESCO/Tunis Belvédère: ADEA. theories can be considered as a great pendulum cycled from Skinnerian environmentalism to Piagetian constructivism to Chomskian innatism. In conversations in communities and with education policymakers, there is often widespread misunderstanding that the outcome of children’s education where MTB-MLE is used is that children will only become literate in their mother tongue and will have little or no chance to become literate in the dominant language. I work for a government agency Using “bilingual education” instead may be a more positive way to describe education that enables all children to learn and become literate in more than one language. Walter, S., & Davis, P. (2005). Social justice through multilingual education (pp. Teaching practices: Teaching in a familiar language. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/Education-Notes/EdNotes_Lang_of_Instruct.pdf. 278-300). Their children will not be ‘crippled’ by becoming literate in only one language. Further to this, the effectiveness of a MT will be discussed in a formal setting and main aspects of education such as access, learning abilities and outcomes, pedagogy and second language acquisition will be highlighted. In many settings, teachers in so-called MTB-MLE are known to community members, who may be well aware of the teacher’s limited range of language and literacy skills. 19-38). Mother tongue(first language, native language, or L1) is essential for learning as a part of intellectual ability. It is also common throughout Canada, where communities aim to introduce Indigenous language-based education that also uses English or French, however there are almost no qualified teachers who are able to speak, read and write an Indigenous language (Ball & McIvor, 2013). Kiswahili was especially favored in education for purposes of national and regional unity. The mother tongue based education usually takes place in the language or dialect by which the learners earned from their parents and at home. This may contribute to parents’ perception that their children will be handicapped when they have to use the dominant language, including in secondary school and in life. I work for a research organization Mother tongue instruction generally refers to the use of the learners’ mother tongue as the medium of instruction. A student of Khmer descent learns Kinh language (the official Vietnamese language) at the Lac Hoa Primary School in Soc Trang province. On the other hand, there are some very real difficulties involved in the implementation of … Mother tongue education is a sore point with South Africans, teachers and officials, with two main perspectives prevailing. Foreign languages are acquired in the same way. Adika, G.S. It is meant to address the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. Hence, the learners enter into the cocoon of bilingualism or multilingualism. Internationally, education theory favours mother-tongue instruction and recommends that schooling should begin in the language the child knows best, often their mother tongue. & Glanz, C. This model promotes language of instruction in the mother tongue of the school district, rather than Filipino (Tagalog) or English. As the number of English first-language speakers is only the fourth highest of all the language groups in South Africa, it follows that the majority of children in the country are taught in a language that is not their mother-tongue.School subjects in South Africa are either taught in English from grade 1 all the way through to matric or the first three years of education are presented in the children’s first language (any of the other ten official o… (Eds.) ”Mother Tongue-Based Education in the Philippines: Studying Top-Down Policy Implementation for the Bottom Up” Sahib, Idris. Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we acquire our first language and our subsequent languages. (Eds.). This study was conducted to find the relationship of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) to the acquisition of the English learning competencies of the Grade 4 pupils. three theories of the effects of language education 223 the basic rationale for bilingual education programs noted by the United States Commission on Civil Rights (1975) and embedded in Lau v. Nichols (1974). Mother tongue is the language human beings acquire from birth. Culture and Mother Tongue "It is the language community of the mother tongue, the language spoken in a region, which enables the process of enculturation, the growing of an individual into a particular system of linguistic perception of the world and participation in the centuries-old history of linguistic production." Chinese Education and Society, 40(2), 9-25. One camp believes that the key to resolving South Africa’s education crisis is to radically improve education and training for teachers, specifically language teachers, whether they teach Afrikaans, an indigenous South African language or English. The World Bank (2005). This is more likely in classrooms where the teacher is not literate in the dominant language. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. (2010). A review and analysis of theory and practice in mother-tongue and bilingual education in sub-Saharan Africa (pp. Another order was issued in 2012 that offered more specific guidelines for MTB-MLE and embedded the reform in the newly adopted ―K to 12 Basic Education Program‖ (Philippines Department of Education, 2012). Global and entity tokens are replaced with their values. "A task force for preparing a roadmap on imparting technical education in mother tongue was formed today. MoEYS Cambodia (2010) Guidelines on implementation of bilingual education programs for Indigenous children in highland provinces. A review and analysis of theory and practice in mother-tongue and bilingual education sub-Saharan Africa (pp. Teachers’ shifting language ideologies and teaching practices in Philippine mother tongue classrooms. Krashen argued that language minority children in all-English instruction who English in Ghana: Growth, tensions, and trends. For example, rejection of MTB-MLE is known to be widespread in several countries in Africa (Adika, 2012; Edu-Buandoh & Otchere, 2012; Erling et al., 2016), Philippines (Parba, 2018), and some parts of China (Rong, 2007). UNESCO’s areas of work. While MTB-MLE has been sought after and enthusiastically received in many settings, some families and teachers have not embraced this approach, even when there are supportive policies. This is important to analyse because at the time when children develop their mother tongue, a simultaneous development of a host of other essential skills such as critical thinking and literacy skills takes place in them. Mother tongue education (MTE) has been a subject of rigorous debate for more than half a century, in both industrialised and developing societies. Doubts tend to focus on whether this approach gives children a ‘fair chance’ to succeed in education, the mainstream economy, and life in an increasingly globalized world (Trudell & Young, 2018). Professor Jim Cummins from the University of Toronto has written about the importance of mother tongue. This segregation can exacerbate parents’ fears that their children are receiving an education that erodes social harmony and will not lay the foundation for later success when children are mainstreamed. Balfour RH "Mother-tongue Education or Bilingual Education for South Africa: Theories, Pedagogies and Sustainability" 2007 41(2) Journal for Language Teaching 1-16 Benson and Kosonen "Introduction" Benson C and Kosonen K " Introduction" in Benson C and Kosonen K (eds) Language Issues in Comparative Education: Inclusive Teaching and Learning in Non-dominant Languages and Cultures … It helps the child in his/her mental, moral, and emotional development. Multilingual education based on the mother tongue (s) in the early years of schooling plays a key role in fostering respect for diversity and a sense of interconnectedness between countries and populations, which are core values at the heart of global citizenship. (pp. Medium of instruction policies in Ghanaian and Indian primary schools: an overview of key issues and recommendations. In Spolsky, B. Benefits of mother tongue education. The second main component of the bill addresses the linguistic discrimination that occurs in emphasizing English education, by implementing Mother Tongue Based, Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). The way that mother tongue based multilingual education has been offered may contribute to low parent demand in some settings. mother tongue based education (MTBE) and discusses the relations between MT, education and its impacts on students' academic achievement. It drew substantially on the foundational works of Cummins (1976, 1979, 1980, 1984b, 1986), hence the earlier references throughout the thesis. Benson, C., & Kosonen, K. All multi-language education models recommend integrating children with diverse languages in shared classrooms for all or most subjects. There has been steady growth in opportunities for children to start school in their mother tongue (called “home language”, or L1), in various forms of mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) (Benson & Kosonen, 2013; UNESCO, 2016). All fields are required. Given a choice, what language(s) will parents choose for their children’s first experience of formal education? Theories of language learning have been bandied about since about as far back as one would care to look. They are bilingual programs. These theories predict that several years of mother-tongue instruction will lead to better second-language acquisition than being instructed in that second language from the … The Education Ministry has set up a task force for preparing a roadmap on imparting technical education in the mother tongue.This decision was taken by the Union Education … Heugh, K. (2011). Despite disparate views on MTE, there is an uneasy consensus on its importance in educational systems, especially in the foundational years. Other. The fourth aspect of mother tongue education involves its actual implementation in the schools. This model promotes language of instruction in the mother tongue of the school district, rather than Filipino (Tagalog) or English. These theories predict that several years of mother-tongue instruction will lead to better second-language acquisition than being instructed in that second language from the first day of school. However, using the term ‘bilingual’ may yield gains in terms of highlighting for parents that the education approach is intended to support dominant as well as non-dominant language skills. On the one hand, it seems reasonable and desirable that learners should be able to receive education in their mother tongue, if they so wish. A new study is exploring how a person’s native language can influence the way the brain processes auditory words in a second language. It may be surprising to know that the problems that philosophers in Ancient Greece and 16th century France were concerned about are largely still relevant today. Opponents sometimes argue that the practice will ‘cripple’ a generation of ethno-linguistic minority children who will remain marginalized due to deficiencies in dominant language skills. In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. Mohanty, & M. Panda (Eds.). Heugh, K., Benson, C., Bogale, B., & Gebre Yohannes, M.A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. He claims that humans have an innate ability that guides the language learning process. (August 2019). I work for a private sector company ii … Bilingualism or multilingualism as part of the child’s education program comes as the core of some pedagogical issues. Since School Year (SY) 2012-2013, the Mother Tongue-Based-Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) began to be implemented in all public schools, specifically in Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 as part of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. ... Bilingual Children's Mother Tongue: Why is it important for education? It is meant to address the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. Most states that allow use of the mother tongue in early education use a bridging model, in which children are taught in the mother tongue for a few weeks or months, then in both the mother tongue and the dominant language for the first two or three years, and then transition to learning in the dominant language in the middle of primary school. (2009). Click on the map to browse videos and stories highlighting GPE results, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/Education-Notes/EdNotes_Lang_of_Instruct.pdf, https://www.sil.org/literacy-education/good-answers-tough-questions-mother-tongue-based-multilingual-education, Inclusive education in a post-COVID world: New report from Humanity & Inclusion, 5 reasons for $5+ billion: Interview with Maria Flachsbarth, Japanese civil society raises the need for more education funding. Despite disparate views on MTE, there is an uneasy consensus on its importance in educational systems, especially in the foundational years. It is from Chapter 3 – Delivering Education and Training in the book The Certificate in Education and Training, by Ann Gravells and Susan Simpson.Published by Sage Publishing Company. Mother-tongue education might also actually make the acquisition of a second language easier. Rong, M. (2007). A review and analysis of theory and practice in mother-tongue and bilingual education sub-Saharan Africa (pp. In A. Ouane & C. Glanz (Eds.). MTB-MLE refers to “first-language-first” education that is, schooling which begins in the mother tongue and transitions to additional languages particularly Filipino and English. As such, it contributes to the fostering of learning to live together, in line with Target 4.7. Department of Education, 2009). One of the changes in the basic curriculum of education brought about by the new K + 12 program is the introduction of Mother Tongue – based Multilingual Education. Final report: Study on medium of instruction in primary schools in Ethiopia. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. UNESCO (2016a). "Strong Bridge" - an essential difference between MLE programs and rural "mother tongue education" programs is the inclusion of a guided transition from learning through the mother tongue to learning through another tongue. The perception that children will not gain enough proficiency in the dominant language to succeed in later grades may be due in part to the challenge of recruiting teachers who are able to speak, read and write in the local language as well as in the dominant language (Trudell & Young, 2018). In fact, this may be the outcome, if a teacher primarily focuses on literacy in the mother tongue, and children do not continue their education beyond the primary grades, when education in the dominant language is the norm in fully implemented MTB-MLE. UNESCO: Paris. In classrooms where 10 or more different mother tongues are spoken, a situation that is fast becoming the norm throughout Europe, it would not be practically feasible to provide a full blown bilingual education programme for each student. Trudell, B., & Young, C. Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Hamburg: UNESCO/Tunis Belvédère: ADEA. Educational Sciences:Theory and Practice, 14(1) Savage, Carolyn. All rights reserved. (2013). 159-185). Bilingual education for China’s ethnic minorities. The family is not necessarily the place where languages are transmitted, and sometimes we observe breaks in transmission, often translated by a change of language, with children acquiring as first language the one that dominates in the milieu. Cultivating the appeal of bilingual education depends on effective awareness-raising activities that highlight the cognitive, economic, and social advantages for all children to become bilingual in integrated classrooms. It is considered to be an important component of quality education, particularly in the … Ouane, A. Additionally, it can refer to the mother tongue as a subject of instruction. Vietnam. The Bridge: Journal of Educational Research-Informed Practice Volume 2, Issue 3: December 2015 ISSN 2056-6670 CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 24 The effectiveness of a mother tongue based education to improve learning outcomes and second language acquisition in public primary schools of Zone 3, Mauritius Preeya Daby In general, however, the longer a child is able to learn in and through his or her mother tongue (s) the greater the educational benefits that can be expected. Edu-Buandoh, D. F., and G. Otchere 2012. Tweet; Post By Topic. ‘“Speak English!” A prescription or choice of English as a lingua franca in Ghanaian schools.” Linguistics and Education, 23 (3): 301-309. In C. Benson & K. Kosonen (Eds.). A compendium of examples produced by UNESCO (2008b) attests to growing interest in promoting mother tongue-based education, and to the wide variety of models, tools, and resources now being developed and piloted to promote learning programs in the mother tongue. The Importance of Mother Tongue in Education. Parents can help with homework and can participate in school activities, Studies have reported that when children take advantage of their multilingualism they also enjoy higher socioeconomic status, including higher earnings, On average, the schools perform better,reporting less repetition, Finally, schools report children stay in school longer. Optimizing learning education and publishing in Africa: The language factor. This is generally the case in Cambodia, for example, where the government supports MLE for Indigenous children, but few teachers are proficient in both Khmer and an Indigenous language. The second main component of the bill addresses the linguistic discrimination that occurs in emphasizing English education, by implementing Mother Tongue Based, Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). (A few programs offer education in more than two languages, and are therefore multilingual programs). During this period, mother tongue was preferred for verbal communication especially in rural areas, while English and Kiswahili were preferred for education from lower primary to the university. Relevance of Mother Tongue:- We are analysing the importance of mother tongue being the medium of education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. 105-156). Burton, Lisa Anne. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 1-12. From Theory to Practice: Mother-tongue based Bi/Multilingual Education Programme for Ethnic Children in Thailand1 Wanna Tienmee2 Foundation for Applied Linguistics (FAL) 27 August 2008 0. In some places, helping the teachers produce mother tongue materials are other education stakeholders such as universities, non-government organizations, and mother tongue advocates. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. One of the changes in Basic Education Curriculum brought about by the K-12 program is the introduction of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education. This order shifted from the original mother tongue approach by specifying twelve major regional Now, more than one school year after the start of its implementation, what have we learned from this program? (2011). Because of receiving social acceptance the standardized version of the spoken language is used as the medium of communication, education and administration. (2013). Strong research evidence shows that MTB-MLE can result in children becoming bilingual if it is delivered well and for long enough (throughout primary school) (Cummins, 2009). © Center for Promoting Ideas, USA www.ijhssnet.com Language teaching and learning in multilingual classrooms EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Education and Culture Directorate B — Education policy and … Speakers of mother tongues, which are not the same as the national language, are often at a considerable disadvantage in the educational system.” With MTB-MLE, we expand the access to social, political, economic and physical development processes, which are often unreachable for children who speak a different mother tongue. 7 Great Theories About Language Learning by Brilliant Thinkers. Hence the principle of an ‘additive approach’ to language learning and the value of at least six years of mother tongue education, with the gradual introduction of English as a co-teaching medium until the end of Pri - mary school, as promoted but not implemented in the 1997 Language in Education Policy. The mother tongue subject becomes a part of the curriculum. Bilingual education starts with the mother tongue, A student reads out loud from his textbook. Bialystok, Ellen, Luk, Gigi, & Kwan, Ernest (2005) Bilingualism, biliteracy, and learning to read: Interactions among languages and writing systems. Optimizing learning, education and publishing in Africa: The language factor. 74, series of 2009). Kenya has legislated a Language in Education (LiE) policy to use mother tongue in lower primary classes (class 1-3), yet the pupils in Tabaka Division of Kenya continue to perform poorly in national examinations. Walter, S., & Benson, C. (2012). For example, in Ethiopia (Heugh, 2011) and Eritrea (Walter & Davis, 2005), the longer the mother tongue was used as the primary language of instruction (up to 8 years) in a multilingual classroom, the better national examination results. This paper presents evidence from research and current reality of the Philippines. Research shows that children learn best in a language they already understand (UNESCO, 2016). Kenya has legislated a Language in Education (LiE) policy to use mother tongue in lower primary classes (class 1-3), yet the pupils in Tabaka Division of Kenya continue to perform poorly in national examinations. I work for an international organization 5(5), 249-266. I work for the GPE Secretariat Parba, J. The Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education policy is complex from different perspectives. In nearly all primary school settings where the mother tongue is used, some instructional time is spent teaching oral and written skills in the dominant language as well as in the mother tongue. (2012). "The notion of 'mother tongue' is thus a mixture of myth and ideology. However, it is likely that parents who reject MTB-MLE have not had an opportunity to see its benefits when it has been fully implemented and appropriately resourced for six years of primary school. Yet, with the promise of producing bilingual, biliterate citizens, what accounts for parents’ resistance to MTB-MLE? of mother tongue education, with the gradual introduction of English as a co-teaching medium until the end of Pri - mary school, as promoted but not implemented in the 1997 Language in Education Policy. The Cambridge handbook of language policy (pp. the only country in Southeast Asia to have instituted a national policy requiring mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) in the primary school years. Cummins, J. Bilingual education is a term that can appeal to parents whose home language is the dominant language as well as to parents whose home language is a non-dominant language. In this new series, GPE asks changemakers five questions on the power of education. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. (Ed.) Topics: mother tongue, Tips for parents, theory. Ball, J. 105-156). The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. Children learn better in their mother tongue . Another situation that can increase resistance to MTB-MLE, seen in some communities, is when there is an MTB (only) classroom for ethnic minority children, and dominant language classrooms for everyone else. 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